How does the CVID-19 vaccine work?
Unlike traditional vaccines (such as the flu vaccine), Pfizer and Modena’s COVID-19 vaccine, doesn’t use a weak or inactive form of the virus to induce an immune reaction. In contrast, both vaccines use a gene molecule called a messenger RNA (mRNA). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the instructions contained in mRNA are to make cells in the body produce harmless pieces of what is called a spike protein, resembling a spike protein on the surface of the virus.
The CDC explains that cells release protein fragment on their surface that stimulate immune responses, including the production of antibodies still present in the bloodstream, ready to defend against infection.
How can we know if COVID-19 vaccine is safe?
“Vaccines have been studied to look at two things: whether they are safe and effective,” said Dr. Ison. “COVID-19 trials involved tens of thousands of volunteers to assess safety and efficacy,” he said. The final trial (phase 3) of the Pfizer vaccine registered 43,661 participants, according to the company report.
To make sure that the COVID-19 vaccine is safe, the researchers looked at the general effects among the participants in the trial, he added. Examples: such as the flu vaccine. These vaccines cause you pain at the injection site and after a day or a while you may feel tired and sore. These are recognized as risk factors.
The researchers also assessed whether the people who took part in the trial were ill, as in rare cases, some vaccines could make people sick instead of slightly ill, and this is considered as a bad case. That is not the case with Pfizer and Moderna vaccines. “If a person is protected against COVID-19 after being vaccinated, they will definitely have milder symptoms, which is further evidence of the safety of the vaccine,” says Dr. Ison.
Precaution remains to ensure that people can receive immediate medical attention in the event of a severe allergic reaction. The CDC recommends that people with a history of anaphylactic reactions (severe allergic reactions) for any reason be placed under medical attention for 30 minutes after vaccination. And about 15 minutes for people who don’t have reaction.
How effective is COVID-19 vaccine?
Pfizer vaccine is estimated to be 95% effective and Moderna vaccine is 94.1% effective. For a vaccine that is 95% effective, it means that out of every 100 volunteers who become infected within weeks and months after receiving the vaccine, 95 are in the placebo group. Only five people in the group were vaccinated. “So, all participants had the same risk of infection, but the rate of infection was lower for those who received the vaccine,” said Dr. Ison.
The high efficacy rate of the vaccine is surprisingly informative. The FDA guidelines for vaccines released prior to the completion of Phase III trials indicate that any approved vaccine will be expected to prevent or reduce the severity of the disease by at least 50 percent for people who are vaccinated.
How long will people be protected after receiving COVID-19 vaccine?
“It will take time to confirm,” said Dr. Ison. He explained that the first patients had been vaccinated for about six months, so we still don’t know if immunity can be prevented for longer.
How long can I get this vaccine?
Vaccination is expected to improve over time, but it is estimated that only 5 to 20 million doses will be available for vaccination per week for several months. “It’s very easy to calculate the number, but we know it will take a long time to provide a vaccine to protect everyone.” The wait also depends on whether the vaccination program is effective nationwide. “Each country and region is setting up its own system, so it means that some areas do better than others,” he said.
Will children be able to get vaccinated?
The Food and Drug Administration has approved the Pfizer vaccine for people over 16 years of age. The Moderna vaccine is for people 18 years of age and older. The study of vaccines involving children will begin soon. “This is a common way of developing vaccines and drugs, because if major problems are observed, we really want to prevent it from happening to vulnerable children,” said Dr. Ison.
Vaccine manufacturers and regulators plan to begin testing the vaccine in January, which will test the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine for children, Dr. Fauci said. A report from NBC on Nov, 29 “It will take months until the COVID-19 vaccine for children was approved.
Good news is that the virus does not seem to be very serious in most children. “Children can still get sick and therefore it is important to protect them, but because the effects on children are less than in adults and the elderly, the priority for vaccination is focused on patients who are at high risk,” said Dr. Ison.
What happens if the majority of the population is not vaccinated?
It is estimated that between 60 and 80 percent of the population will be vaccinated against COVID-19 to gain immunity. Immunity occurs when the majority of the population is vaccinated by reducing the number of viruses in the blood enough to protect vulnerable groups who have not been vaccinated. “If everyone chooses not to get vaccinated, then in the future we will be in the same situation we are living in today,” said Dr. Ison.
Can I stop wearing a mask after I have been vaccinated?
“People need to continue to wear masks and maintain social distancing, even if they are vaccinated, until we reach the level of immunity,” says Dr. Ison.
Another thing is that these vaccines are not 100% effective. Although the best vaccines have an infection rate of 5% and some are increasing in effectiveness, the effectiveness of the vaccine is not completely 95%. Therefore, it cannot completely protect you from infection. According to the CDC, one of the most common infections is when a person develops a disease despite having respond to vaccine.
It’s also important to note that both Pfizer and Moderna vaccines need to be injected in a double dose, and for long-separated weeks. “Actually, you are not fully protected until several weeks after the second injection,” says Dr.Ison.
Article by: Health.D Cam